Green-Kubo expressions for transport coefficients from dissipative particle dynamics simulations revisited
This article addresses the debate about the correct application of Green–Kubo expressions for transport coefficients from dissipative particle dynamics simulations. We demonstrate that the Green–Kubo expressions are valid provided that (i) the dynamic model conserves the physical property, whose transport is studied, and (ii) the fluctuations satisfy detailed balance. As a result, the traditional expressions used in molecular dynamics can also be applied to dissipative particle dynamics simulations. However, taking the calculation of the shear viscosity as a paradigmatic example, a random contribution, whose strength scales as 1/dt1/2, with dt the timestep, can cause difficulties if the stress tensor is not separated into the different contributions. We compare our expression to that of Ernst and Brito (M. H. Ernst and R. Brito, Europhys. Lett. 73, 183-189, 2006), which arises from a diametrically different perspective. We demonstrate that the two expressions are completely equivalent and find exactly the same result both analytically and numerically. We show that the differences are not due to the lack of time-reversibility but instead from a preaveraging of the random contributions. Despite the overall validity of Green–Kubo expressions, we find that the Einstein–Helfand relations (D. C. Malaspina et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 25, 12025-12040, 2023) do not suffer from the need to decompose the stress tensor and can readily be used with a high degree of accuracy. Consequently, Einstein–Helfand relations should be seen as the preferred method to calculate transport coefficients from dissipative particle dynamics simulations.
- D. C. Malaspina, M. Lísal, J. P. Larentzos, J. K. Brennan, A. D. Mackie, J. Bonet Avalos, Green-Kubo expressions for transport coefficients from dissipative particle dynamics simulations revisited. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 26, 1328-1339, 2024. DOI